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Financial Management for Public, Health, and Not-for-Profit Organizations, 4/E solutions manual and test bank by Steven A. Finkler

Financial Management for Public, Health, and Not-for-Profit Organizations, 4/E solutions manual and test bank by Steven A. Finkler

Problem 2-20
Budget Inputs
Number of Surgeries 80
Average Charge per Surgery $ 2,500
Surgical Supply Disposal $ 300
Surgeon's Fees $ 1,500
Receptionist & Nurses Salaries $ 10,500
Occupancy Costs $ 8,200
Monthly CommunicationsCosts $ 1,200
Office & Operating Equipment $ 240,000
Useful Life in years 5
Useful Life in Months 60
Monthly Depreciation $ 4,000 $240,000 / 60 months
Monroe Outpatient Surgey Center Operating Budget June 2014
Revenues $ 200,000 80 procedures x $2,500/procedure
Professional Fees $ 120,000 80 procedures x $1,500/procedure
Surgical Supplies 24,000 80 procedures x $300/procedure
Salaries 10,500 Given
Occupancy 8,200 Given
Communications 1,200 Given
Depreciation 4,000 Calculated above
Total Expenses $ 167,900
Profit/(Loss) $ 32,100



CORE-GP.1021: Financial Management

Midterm Examination

Professors Smith and West

Fall 2011

Name: ______________________________________________________

Student ID: __________________________________________________

Please circle the lecture you normally attend:

Tuesday Tuesday Wednesday

12:30 pm 6:45 pm 12:30 pm

(Smith) (West) (Smith)


1) Please turn off your cell phone.

2) Print your initials at the top of each page.

3) You may use one double-sided page of notes. Put away all other written materials.

4) You may use, but not share, a calculator. Be sure to clear your calculator before each calculation.

5) Write clearly, show your work, and circle your final answer. Only one answer will be accepted for each problem.

6) When you are done, hand in your exam and your page of notes.

Good luck!


This section for graders:

1 _____________ 2 _____________ 3 _____________ 4 _____________ 5 _____________

6 _____________ 7 _____________ 10 ____________ 11 ____________

Total Exam Points _____________ x 40% of Course Grade = Course Points _____________

Section 1: Multiple Choice (17 points)

1. (2 points) If Urban University allocates indirect costs to schools and departments based on classroom square footage, this is an example of Activity Based Costing (ABC).

a) True

b) False

2. (2 points) For time value of money calculations (circle all that apply):

a) Increasing i increases present value

b) Increasing i increases future value

c) More frequent compounding increases future value

d) More frequent discounting increases present value

e) n is always expressed in years

3. (1 point) Cash budgets have a beginning balance, while operating budgets do not.

a) True

b) False

4. (2 points) Under accrual accounting, the following are expenses on the operating budget (circle all that apply):

a) Depreciation

b) Debt repayments

c) The acquisition of capital assets

d) Interest

e) Payments to suppliers

5. (2 points) The current value (price) of a term bond is calculated using that bond’s coupon rate to solve for present value.

a) True

b) False

6. (2 points) A favorable revenue variance (assuming at least two products) may indicate (circle all that apply):

a) The mix variance is favorable

b) The quantity variance is favorable

c) The organization paid less per input

d) The organization received less per output

e) There was also a favorable expense variance

7. (1 point) A flexible budget shows profitability under different assumptions of production volume.

a) True

b) False

8. (2 points) Operating budgets may differ from cash budgets due to (circle one):

a) Payment lags

b) Payment leads

c) Receipt lags

d) A and B

e) A, B, and C

9. (1 point) The annualized cost method is used to evaluate alternatives when their useful lives are different.

a) True

b) False

10. (2 points) A vaccination program has a fixed cost of $1,000 and there are no step-fixed costs. If the variable cost is $1.00 and the variable revenue is $1.50 (circle one):

a) The contribution margin is positive

b) Marginal cost is equal to variable cost

c) The break-even quantity will not change if variable revenue is decreased to $1.25

d) A and B

e) A, B, and C

Section 2: Analytical Problems (43 points)


  1. (8 points) A not-for-profit childcare center is planning to expand its services by offering an after-school program. The childcare center operates 40 weeks out of the year, with the after-school program running 4 hours a day, 5 days a week. The program will have a capacity of 20 students per week and plans to operate at capacity through the year. The program will be staffed by two teachers who will each be paid $25 per hour. The program will pay $15,000 a year in rent and utilities, spread evenly throughout the year, and will also pay $200 per week it is open for childcare insurance. The program will purchase furniture and media equipment at a cost of $10,000. The furniture and equipment are expected to last 5 years and to have no salvage value. In order to purchase the furniture and equipment, the program will take out a bank loan of $8,000 on the first day of operations. The bank loan has an annual interest rate of 4%; no principal repayment will be due during the first year. Supplies will cost $5 per student per week and snacks will cost $3 per student per week. What fee should the center charge per child per week in order to break even? Use break-even analysis to solve this problem; other approaches will not receive any credit.
  1. (5 points total) The parks department is currently evaluating proposals from different food vendors to award a contract for a new food kiosk in the town’s main park. The net cash flows associated with each vendor’s proposal are listed below:


a. (4 points) If the discount rate is 2.5%, what is the net present value of each option? (You do not need to show your work on this problem.)

Vendor A: ________________________ Vendor B: _________________________

b. (1 point) Which option should the parks department choose? ___________________

  1. (7 points) You are the investment manager for a local government. Exactly 4 years ago you invested some of the government’s money in the bond market by purchasing a 20-year semiannual term bond with a face value of $10,000. At the time of purchase, the bond had a coupon rate of 4.5%. The current market rate for similar bonds is 3.9%, so you decide to sell the bond and immediately invest the money in a new investment account that offers a 5.1% interest rate, compounded monthly. How much will the government’s investment account be worth 10 years from today?
  1. (6 points total) A regional not-for-profit organization builds homes for low-income families in need of safe and affordable housing. The organization must hire contractors to oversee the construction of these homes. During the past year, the organization spent more than expected on contractors and the manager is trying to figure out what factors led to this increase in expenses. The organization had expected to build 50 homes and hire 10 contractors for a total of 2,000 hours; however, the organization was actually able to build 55 homes during the past year, and they hired 12 contractors who worked 2,090 hours in total. The contractors were expected to be paid $35 per hour but were actually paid $37 per hour. Use the space below to perform a variance analysis and then respond to the following questions:
    1. (2 points) What is the price variance? Make sure to label the variance as favorable or unfavorable.
    1. (2 points) What variance contributed most to the total variance? What percentage of the total variance is attributable to this variance?
    1. (2 points) Without using financial jargon, explain why the quantity variance in this scenario is either favorable or unfavorable.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

(use the space below to perform the variance analysis)

  1. (8 points) A not-for profit organization has three programs: a soup kitchen, a thrift shop, and a homeless shelter. These three programs share an administrative office and space in the same building. The director of the organization is trying to estimate the total annual cost of running the organization’s soup kitchen. The salaries for the soup kitchen’s employees total $85,000 per year. The soup kitchen uses $500 in supplies each month and records an annual depreciation expense of $12,000 for its kitchen equipment. The cost of salaries for the administrative office, including the director’s salary, is $190,000 per year. The administrative staff uses $300 in supplies each month and records an annual depreciation expense of $8,000 for its office equipment. The administrative office estimates that it spent 2700 staff hours on the soup kitchen, 1500 staff hours on the thrift shop, and 1800 staff hours on the homeless shelter. The entire cost of the administrative office is allocated to the three programs using staff hours as the cost base. The organization’s lease payments are $4,000 per month and utilities cost $1,250 per month. Additionally, maintenance costs on the space are equal to $48,000 for the year. The soup kitchen uses 5,700 square feet of the organization’s total 15,000 square feet of space. The entire cost of space and maintenance is allocated to the three programs using square footage as the cost base. Calculate the soup kitchen’s total annual cost.
  1. (9 points total) A community farm needs to purchase a new tractor for the upcoming year. The manager is trying to make a decision between three different tractor options. Tractor A is a 6-year lease with monthly payments of $9,000 due at the beginning of each month. This amount includes $100 a month for maintenance. Tractor B is the purchase of a new tractor for $575,000. The tractor’s estimated useful lifetime is 6 years and it would require yearly maintenance payments of $1,000 throughout its lifetime. The maintenance payments are due at the beginning of each year. Tractor C also has an estimated useful lifetime of 6 years. This tractor would require an initial down payment of $200,000 and then monthly payments of $5,500 due at the end of each month. These payments include a small monthly maintenance fee. The community farm uses a discount rate of 3.5%.

a) (8 points) Calculate the net present cost of Tractors A, B, and C and enter your answers below.

Tractor A ___________________________ Tractor B ___________________________

Tractor C ___________________________

b) (1 point) Which option should the manager choose? ___________________________

Section 3: Budget Preparation (40 points)

QwikShare is a not-for-profit organization that provides environmentally friendly transportation options at QwikStops in suburban areas. It rents bicycles and low-emissions automobiles to customers by the hour or by the day at a rate of $5 per hour or $65 per day for bicycle rentals, and $15 per hour or $175 per day for automobile rentals. Its fiscal year is January 1–December 31.

QwikShare’s full-time staff includes a Chief Executive Officer, a Chief Financial Officer, an Operations Manager, two software developers, two customer service agents, and two mechanics. Full-time staff salaries will total $750,000 in FY 2012 (up from $700,000 in FY 2011), and health benefit expenses will be 30% of full-time payroll (up from 27.5% in FY 2011). (Full-time staff salaries and benefits should be one line-item.) The organization also employs 10 part-time staff members who will earn an average of $12.50 per hour in wages and work an average of 20 hours per week. The average wage and workweek for part-timers was the same in FY 2011.

QwikShare anticipates that in FY 2012 it will rent each of its 25 bicycles for an average of 600 hours at the hourly rate and for an average of 20 days at the daily rate. In addition, it plans to rent each of its 15 automobiles for an average of 3,500 hours at the hourly rate and for an average of 60 days at the daily rate. (Revenue from bicycle rentals and automobile rentals should be two separate line-items.) The organization will also be supported by a new federal grant that will pay QwikShare $0.50 for every pound of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions its rentals prevent in 2012. QwikShare estimates that each of its low-emissions automobiles will prevent 7,500 pounds of CO2 emissions in FY 2012, while each of its bicycles will prevent 25,000 pounds of CO2 emissions.

QwikShare’s depreciation expense in FY 2011, for all property and equipment, was $110,000 (the organization uses the straight-line method of depreciation). The organization retained all of the property and equipment it owned in FY 2011 and, at the beginning of FY 2012, it acquired 5 new bicycles and 3 new automobiles (as stated above, it now has a total of 25 bicycles and 15 automobiles). Each automobile was purchased for $25,000, has a useful life of 5 years, and can be sold for $5,000 at the end of its useful life. Each bicycle cost $1,750, has a salvage value of $250, and has a useful life of 3 years. The organization began FY 2012 with $55,000 in cash, and partially financed these purchases with a 3-year, $60,000 loan (the remainder was paid for with preexisting cash). The loan has an annual interest rate of 12% with equal annual loan repayments beginning on December 31. Interest payments are also made on the last day of the fiscal year.

Finally, QwikShare leases its office and garage space at $3,500 per month, pays $1,000 per month in utilities (up from $750 per month in FY 2011), and will use $2,500 in supplies each month (up from $2,000 per month in FY 2011). The organization self-insures its bicycles and automobiles but pays $350 per month in renter’s insurance to protect its office and garage space.

All of QwikShare’s expenses are paid on-time except full-time salaries and benefits, which are paid with a one-month lag, part-time wages, which are paid with a two-week lag, and supplies, which are paid with a one-quarter lag. The organization’s revenues are received as they are earned, but federal grant payments will be received with a two-quarter lag.

Hint: As always, assume there are 12 months per year and 52 weeks per year.

Do not convert months to weeks or vice versa.

On the next two pages, prepare an annual operating budget and a semiannual cash budget (showing the first half of the year, the second half of the year, and the annual total in three side-by-side columns) for QwikShare for FY 2012. Assume revenues are earned evenly throughout the year.

(You may use the space below for notes and calculations; however,

nothing written on this page will be graded.)

Prepare an annual operating budget for QwikShare for FY 2012. (18 points)

Prepare a semiannual cash budget showing the first half of the year, the second half of the year, and the annual total in three side-by-side columns for QwikShare for FY 2012. (22 points)

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