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9/13/14

E-Marketing, 6/E Judy Strauss Raymond Frost solutions manual and test bank

E-Marketing, 6/E Judy Strauss Raymond Frost solutions manual and test bank

CHAPTER TEN

PRICE: THE ONLINE VALUE

Multiple Choice

1. Broadly speaking, the definition of price includes all of the following values except ________.

a. money

b. time

c. physical cost

d. psychic cost

(c; Easy; LO1; Analytic Skills)

2. ________ refers to the idea that both buyers and sellers can view all competitive prices for items sold online.

a. Price transparency

b. Dynamic pricing

c. Online pricing

d. None of the above

(a; Easy; LO1; Analytic Skills)

3. All of the following are cost savings enjoyed by shoppers online except ________.

a. the internet is convenient

b. the internet is fast

c. shipping costs are reduced

d. integration saves time

(c; Difficult; LO2; Analytic Skills)

4. The phenomenon that some people may actually pay a higher price for auctioned products than they would pay an online retailer is known as ________.

a. seller control

b. buyer control

c. dynamic pricing

d. the winner’s curse

(d; Moderate; LO2; Analytic Skills)

5. ________ power is based largely on the huge quantity of information and product availability on the Web.

a. Buyer

b. Seller

c. Market

d. All of the above

(a; Easy; LO2; Analytic Skills)

6. ________ is the most common profit-oriented objective for pricing.

a. Competition-based pricing

b. Dynamic pricing

c. Current profit maximization

d. Segmented pricing

(c; Difficult; LO3; Analytic Skills)

7. Which of the following attributes of the internet puts upward pressure on prices?

a. online customer service

b. affiliate programs

c. customer acquisition costs

d. all of the above

(d; Moderate; LO4; Analytic Skills)

8. Which of the following attributes of the internet puts downward pressure on prices?

a. distribution

b. price dispersion

c. self-service order processing

d. all of the above

(c; Difficult; LO4; Analytic Skills)

9. All of the following are types of markets recognized by economists except ________.

a. pure competition

b. oligopolistic monopoly

c. monopolistic competition

d. oligopolistic competition

(b; Moderate; LO4; Analytic Skills)

10. A market is truly efficient when customers have equal access to information about ________.

a. products

b. prices

c. distribution

d. all of the above

(d; Easy; LO4; Analytic Skills)

11. ________ refers to the variability of purchase behavior with changes in price.

a. Price elasticity

b. Price transparency

c. Dynamic pricing

d. Competition-based pricing

(a; Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

12. Which of the following are possible explanations of online price dispersion?

a. delivery options

b. time-sensitive shopping habits

c. switching costs

d. all of the above

(d; Moderate; LO4; Analytic Skills)

13. ________ shopping agents guide the consumer through the process of quantifying benefits and evaluating the value equation.

a. First-generation

b. Second-generation

c. Third-generation

d. Fourth-generation

(b; Easy; LO5; Analytic Skills)

14. In general, marketers can employ which of the following types of pricing strategies both online and offline ________.

a. fixed pricing

b. auction pricing

c. dynamic pricing

d. all of the above

(d; Easy; LO3; Analytic Skills)

15. ________ and ________ are types of fixed pricing strategies.

a. Price leadership; promotional pricing

b. Price leadership; negotiation

c. Promotional pricing; segmented pricing

d. Negotiation; segmented pricing

(a; Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

16. ________ pricing uses the internet properties for mass customization, automatically devising pricing based on order size and timing, demand and supply levels, and other preset decision factors.

a. Promotional

b. Auction

c. Segmented

d. Negotiated

(c; Difficult; LO1; Analytic Skills)

17. In order to avoid upsetting customers who learn they are getting different prices than their neighbors, e-marketers should use customer-accepted reasons. These reasons may include ________.

a. giving discounts to new customers

b. giving discounts to loyal customers

c. adjusting shipping fees due to outlying locations

d. all of the above

(d; Moderate; LO3; Analytic Skills)

18. When using ________ segment pricing, a company may set different prices when selling a product in different states or regions.

a. value

b. distance

c. geographic

d. market

(c; Easy; LO3; Analytic Skills)

19. ________ suggests that 80% of a firm’s business typically comes from the top 20% of customers.

a. The Pareto principle

b. Customer loyalty

c. Value segmenting

d. Dynamic pricing

(a; Easy; LO3; Analytic Skills)

20. Which of the following customer group is of least value to a seller?

a. A+

b. A

c. B

d. C

(d; Moderate; LO3; Analytic Skills)

21. Buyer power on the internet is the result of all the following except ________.

a. product availability

b. product costs

c. large amount of information

d. willingness of sellers to negotiate

(b; Moderate; LO2; Analytic Skills)

22. Companies select market oriented pricing on the internet to ________.

a. maximize profits

b. grow market share

c. increase return on investment (ROI)

d. all of the above

(b; Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

True/False

23. Today’s buyer must be quite sophisticated to understand even the simple dollar cost of a product.

a. True

b. False

(a; Moderate; LO2; Analytic Skills)

24. The seller’s perspective on pricing includes both internal and external factors affecting pricing levels.

a. True

b. False

(a; Difficult; LO3; Analytic Skills)

25. The objective of competition-based pricing is to price according to the company’s costs or demand.

a. True

b. False

(b; Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

26. Price dispersion is the observed spread between the highest and lowest price for a given product.

a. True

b. False

(a; Easy; LO4; Analytic Skills)

27. The internet is currently an efficient market.

a. True

b. False

(b; Easy; LO4; Analytic Skills)

28. Menu pricing is the strategy of offering different prices to different customers.

a. True

b. False

(b; Difficult; LO1; Analytic Skills)

29. In terms of dynamic pricing, negotiation is most often initiated by the seller.

a. True

b. False

(b; Difficult; LO1; Analytic Skills)

30. With value segment pricing the seller recognizes that not all customers provide equal value to the firm.

a. True

b. False

(a; Moderate; LO3; Analytic Skills)

31. Giving high-value customers the first shot at discounts will reinforce their loyalty.

a. True

b. False

(a; Easy; LO5; Analytic Skills)

32. Tax benefits are the only likely benefit of bartering over other pricing strategies.

a. True

b. False

(a; Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

33. Online sellers are less willing to negotiate than offline sellers, giving more power to seller.

a. True

b. False

(b; Easy; LO1; Analytic Skills)

34. A key issue for companies who have an online and an offline presence is how to coordinate pricing between the two channels.

a. True

b. False

(b; Easy; LO5; Analytic Skills)


Essay Questions

35. In the narrowest sense, price is the amount of money charged for a product. However, a much broader definition of price may be more accurate. What factors are accounted for in a broader definition of price? Give real life examples of each.

§ Price is sum of all values both monetary and non-monetary. It may include factors/values such as money, time, energy, and psychic cost.

§ Monetary cost - what you pay at the grocery for milk

§ Time - Buying Airline tickets on the net can take much more time, than dealing with an agent

§ Energy - Like time finding something on e-Bay can take a lot of energy

§ Psychic Cos t- Buying clothing on the internet can involve high psychic cost. What looks good in a picture alone, or on a model, may not look or feel good on you.

(Moderate; LO1; Analytic Skills)

36. There are several attributes of the internet that may allow for cost savings online. Define and give examples of at least four.

§ Convenience- Buy at any time and any place

§ Speed of the Net- Typical transaction is very quick, once the buyer has made a decision

§ Self Service – Saves time and money. Customer performs job of sales rep and can access information across the internet

§ One Stop Shopping – Saves time and convenience.

§ Integration – Saves time, Web Portals act as malls to pull product assortments together

§ Automation – Saves energy, keep track of previous purchases, automatic bidding

(Difficult; LO5; Analytic Skills)

37. Define and distinguish between the four types of markets recognized by economists. What kind of market is the internet at this time?

§ Pure Competition – Many buyers and sellers selling a non-differentiated product like wheat or corn. Since it is a commodity with little product differentiation, marketers spend little time on marketing.

§ Monopolistic competition – Many buyers and sellers who trade over a range of prices, because sellers can differentiate product and their offers.

§ Oligopolistic competition – A few sellers who are highly price sensitive to the competition.

§ Pure Monopoly – One seller with price typically regulated by government

§ Currently most companies on the internet operate in a monopolistic competition environment.

(Moderate; LO3; Analytic Skills)

38. What factors might explain the wide price dispersion on the internet? In your opinion, which of these factors has the biggest effect on the spread between online prices?

§ Branding

§ Dynamic Pricing of goods online

§ Delivery options impact pricing

§ Time Sensitive Buyers

§ Perceived Product Differentiation

§ Switching Costs

§ Shopping Agents

§ The biggest factor on the internet currently is Branding

(Moderate; LO4; Analytic Skills)

39. What are the three types of pricing strategies marketers can employ both online and offline? Give an example of a Web site that uses each of these strategies.

§ Fixed Pricing www.walmart.com

§ Dynamic Pricing www.priceline.com

§ Segmented Pricing www.southwest.com

(Moderate; LO3; Analytic Skills)

40. The internet is always considered a low cost option for selling products and services. From a firm’s perspective what are some factors that add to the expense of doing business on the internet and why?

§ Online Customer Service – Personnel and training costs.

§ Distribution – Shipping to individuals, Last mile factor.

§ Affiliate – Payments of commissions.

§ Site Development and maintenance – Need a highly developed site to remain competitive and it is usually very expensive.

§ Customer Acquisition Costs – Getting new customers is an expensive proposition in the online environment.

(Difficult; LO3; Analytic Skills)

 

Chapter 2:

Strategic E-Marketing and Performance Metrics

Learning Objectives

Strategic Planning

The managerial process of developing and maintaining a viable fit between the organization’s objectives, skills, and resources and its changing market opportunities by identifying the firm’s goals in areas such as: growth, competitive position, geographic scope, as well as other objectives.

Environment, Strategy, and Performance

Organizations perform a SWOT analysis to determine what internal strengths, weaknesses are, and external opportunities and threats may be. Performance metrics are measured to determine the success or failure of plans and strategies.

Strategy

Strategy is the means to achieve a goal. It is how a firm will achieve its objectives and the tactics used to succeed.

From Strategy to Electronic Strategy

When business strategies include information technology components, they become e-business strategies. Marketing strategies becomes e-marketing strategy when marketers use digital technology to implement the strategy.

From Business Models to E-Business Models

A business model is a method by which the organization sustains itself in the long term and includes its value proposition for partners and customers as well as its revenue streams. Some factors involved in the decision of which business model to follow would depend on the following factors: customer value, scope, price, revenue sources, connected activities, implementation, capabilities, and sustainability.

E-Business Models

What makes a business model an e-business model is the direct connection with information technology, which includes its value proposition for partners and customers as well as its revenue streams. Even though the Internet spawned the vast majority of e-business models, it is very important to remember that e-marketing and e-business models may operate outside the Internet. The term e-business models include both Internet and offline digital models throughout the rest of our discussion.

Value and Revenue

An organization’s way of describing the way in which it creates value for customers and partners. Value encompasses the customer’s perceptions of the product’s benefits, specifically its attributes, brand name, and support services. Value = Benefits – Costs.

Menu of Strategic E-Business Models

Exhibit 2.3 shows a number of opportunities for firms to provide stakeholder value and generate revenue streams using information technology. A key element in setting strategic objectives is to take stock of the company’s current situation and decide the level of commitment to e-business in general and e-marketing in particular. Models may be based on the following:

Activity Level E-Business Models – which may include: online purchasing, order processing, email, content publisher, business intelligence, online advertising, online sales promotions, or pricing strategies.

Business Process Level E-Business Models – these may be used to increase the firm’s effectiveness: customer relationship management, knowledge management, supply chain management, community building, affiliate programs, database marketing, enterprise resource planning, and mass customization.

Enterprise-Level E-Business Models – direct selling, content sponsorship, portals, online brokers, online agents, selling agents, manufacturer’s agents, metamediaries, purchasing agents, and virtual malls.

Pure Play – Business’s that became specifically on the Internet, even if the have subsequently added brick-and-mortar locations.

Performance Metrics Inform Strategy

Performance metrics are specific measures designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization’s operations. If strategy is a means to an end, performance metrics allow the entire organization to know what results constitute successful performance.

The Balanced Scorecard

Firms no longer focus specifically on financial performance and market share. During the dot.com bust era, many focused on growth and suffered for it. The Balanced Scorecard suggests that firms consider vision, critical success factors, and performance metrics in four areas: customer, internal, innovation and learning, and financial.

Four Perspectives

Customer – Time, quality, performance and service, and cost.

Internal – Cycle time, manufacturing quality, and employee skills and productivity.

Innovation and Learning – Penetration of new markets, number of new products and the percentage of sales attributable to each, and the improvement of processes such as CRM or SCM.

Financial – income and expense, return on investment, sales, and market share growth.

Applying the Balanced Scorecard to E-Business and E-Marketing

Although unlimited amounts of information available to e-business firms, measuring and interpreting this information is a vital part to the success of that firm. These metrics are also important to the success of an e-business:

Metrics for the Customer Perspective – measures loyalty, lifetime value, customer perceptions of product value, appropriateness of selected targets, and customer buying patterns.

Metrics for the Internal Perspective – may be affected by human resources, information technology and the entire

supply chain

Metrics for the Learning and Growth Perspective – typically falls under the human resources umbrella, except for product innovation and continuous improvement of marketing processes.

Metrics for the Financial Perspectives – two of the most commonly used metrics are profits and return on investment.

Balanced Scorecard for Raytheon’s E-Business

This section shows a real-world example of a firm implementing the Balanced Scorecard method and what measures they established for their Web business.

Chapter Summary

A business or e-business needs strategic planning to develop and maintain the proper fit between the organization’s objectives, skills and resources and its ever-changing market opportunities. Key goals for growth, competitive position, geographic scope, and other areas must be determined.

Strategy is defined as the means to achieve a goal. E-business strategy is the deployment of enterprise resources to capitalize on technologies for reaching specified objectives that ultimately improve performance and create sustainable competitive advantage. E-marketing strategy is the design of marketing strategy that capitalized on the organization’s electronic or information technology capabilities to reach specified objectives.

An e-business model is a method by which the organization sustains itself in the long term using information technology, including its value proposition for partners and customers as well as its revenue streams. Firms deliver value by providing more benefits in relation to costs, as perceived by customers and partners. E-marketing improves the value proposition by increasing benefits, decreasing costs, and increasing revenues.

Companies can become involved in e-business at the activity level, business process level, enterprise level, or through a pure play. Commitment and risk are lower at the activity level and rise with each level. The main e-business models at the activity level include online purchasing, order processing, e-mail, content publishing, business intelligence, online advertising, online sales promotions, dynamic pricing strategies, and social media communications. The main e-business models at the business process level are customer relationship management, knowledge management, and supply chain management, community building online, database marketing, enterprise resource planning, and mass customization. The main e-business models at the enterprise level are e-commerce, portal, social networking, online broker (online exchange and online auction), and online agent (manufacturer’s agent, shopping agent, and reverse auction).

Performance metrics are specific measures designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization’s operations. Web analytics helps to analyze user behavior on a website by using server logs, cookie files, and page tags.

The Balanced Scorecard links strategy to measurement by asking firms to consider their vision, critical success factors for accomplishing it, and subsequent performance metrics in four areas: customer, internal, innovation and learning, and financial. The customer perspective uses measures of the value delivered to customers. The internal perspective evaluates company success at meeting customer expectations through its internal processes. The innovation and learning perspective looks at continuous improvement to existing products and services as well as innovation in new products. The financial perspective looks at income and expense metrics as well as return on investment, sales, and market share growth. Each firm selects metrics for the four perspectives based on its objectives, business model, strategies, industry, and so forth. In this way, the firm can measure progress toward achieving its objectives.

Chapter Outline

Opening Vignette: The Amazon Story

Have the class read the opening vignette on the Amazon Story. Discuss with the class the importance of strategic planning and how it was imperative to Amazon.com’s success. How is it possible that Amazon.com could operate for 7 years without showing a profit? How important are the co-branding partnerships and how do they drive revenue to Amazon.com? Finally, how has the implementation of auctions and the referral program added to the success of Amazon.com? Have the students browse amazon.com to gain perspective on the vast offerings available.

http://www.amazon.com/

I. Strategic Planning

Strategic planning is defined as “the managerial process of developing and maintaining a viable fit between the organization’s objectives, skills, and resources and its changing market opportunities.”

A. Part of the process of Strategic Planning is to identify goals in high-level areas such as:

1. Growth – how much growth and how fast? You must first understand competition, product life cycles and market factors.

2. Competitive position – how does the firm position itself against other firms in the industry?

a. Industry leader – Google

b. Price leader – Priceline

c. Quality leader – Mercedes

d. Niche firm – Technorati

e. Best customer service – Dell

3. Geographic scope – local, national or international.

4. Other objectives – number of industries to enter, range of products, core competencies, etc.

B. Environment, Strategy, and Performance (ESP)

1. Environment -- A SWOT analysis is used to determine the firm’s internal strengths and weaknesses as well as the external opportunities and threats. The environment is analyzed and performance metrics are used to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-business and e-marketing operation.

2. Strategy – is the means to achieve a goal. More important than the goals are how the firm will achieve its objectives. Strategies are carried out by tactics.

3. Performance Strategy – performance measures are used at every level of a firm, from high-level corporate strategic planning to functional and support level objectives.

Discuss the areas outside of the business world that must use strategic planning – athletics, military, political, etc. How might students use strategic planning in assessing their career objectives?

II. From Strategy to Electronic Strategy

Review and explore the U.S. Census Bureau report on the amount of e-commerce conducted. http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/ecomm.html

A. E-business strategy – the deployment of enterprise resources to capitalize on technologies for reaching specified objectives that ultimately improve performance and create sustainable competitive advantage.

B. E-marketing strategy – he design of marketing strategy that capitalizes on the organization’s electronic or information technology capabilities to reach specified objectives.

C. Four appropriate types of rationale for e-business projects:

1. Strategic justification shows how the strategy fits with the firm’s overall mission and business objectives, and where it will take the firm if successfully accomplished.

2. Operational justification identifies and quantifies the specific process improvements that will result from the strategy.

3. Technical justification shows how the technology will fit and provide synergy with current information technology capabilities.

4. Financial justification examines cost/benefit analysis and uses standard measures such as ROI and NPV.

III. From Business Models to E-Business Models.

A Business Model is a method by which the organization sustains itself in the long term and includes its value proposition for partners and customers as well as its revenue streams.

The following components might be used by a firm to determine the fit of a business model and its environment.

A. Customer value – create value through product offerings that are differentiated from the competition.

B. Scope – which markets does the firm serve and are they growing?

C. Price – are the products priced to appeal to markets and achieve company share and profit objectives?

D. Revenue sources – where is the money coming from? Is it plentiful enough to sustain growth and profit objectives over time?

E. Connected activities – what activities will the firm need to perform to create value? Does the firm have those capabilities?

F. Implementation – does the company actually have the ability to make it so?

G. Capabilities – does the firm have the financial, core competencies, and human resources available to make the selected models work?

H. Sustainability – will the model selected create a competitive advantage over time?

During the “bust” years of the dot.com era in 2000-2002, over 750 dot.com companies shut down or declared bankruptcy. Many experts feel that inadequate research into the firm’s revenue sources were a significant factor in the demise of these companies. (http://news.com.com/2100-1017-277420.html?legacy=cnet)

Look at what CNET.com describes as the Top 10 dot-com busts. http://www.cnet.com/4520-11136_1-6278387-1.html Are there any companies that have tried (and either failed or succeeded) in replicating any of these services?

IV. E-Business Models

E-business models are defined by a method in which the organization sustains itself in the long term using information technology, which includes its value proposition for partners and customers as well as its revenue streams. Even though the Internet spawned the vast majority of e-business models, it is very important to remember that e-marketing and e-business models may operate outside the Internet.

A. Value and Revenue

1. Value

a. Value encompasses the customer’s perceptions of the product’s benefits, specifically its attributes, brand name, and support services.

b. Value is similar to the marketing concept, which suggests that the social and economic justification for an organization’s existence is the satisfaction of customer wants and needs.

c. Value can be determine by determining whether there are more benefits than costs: Value = Benefits - Costs

2. Revenue

a. E-business strategies help to decrease internal costs

b. E-business strategies also increase the enterprise revenue stream.

B. Menu of Strategic E-Business Models – a key element in setting strategic objectives is to take stock of the company’s current situation and decide the level of commitment to e-business in general and e-marketing in particular. In exhibit 2.3, the higher the firm travels up the pyramid, the greater its level of commitment to e-business. The Gartner Group poses these questions before embarking on any e-business strategy:

1. Are the business models likely to change in my industry?

2. What does the answer to question 1 mean to my company?

3. When do I need to be ready?

4. How do I get there from here?

C. Level of Commitment to E-Business

1. Activity Level E-Business Models – affects individual

business activities that can save the firm money, is low risk, and can include:

a. Online purchasing

b. Order processing

c. E-mail

d. Content publisher

e. Business intelligence (BI)

f. Online advertising

g. Online sales promotions

h. Pricing strategies

2. Business Process Level E-Business Model – changes

business processes to increase the firm’s effectiveness and can include:

a. Customer relationship management (CRM)

b. Knowledge management (KM)

c. Supply chain management (SCM)

d. Community building

e. Affiliate programs

f. Database marketing

g. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

h. Mass customization

3. Enterprise Level E-Business Models – the firm automates many business processes in a unified system. Some traits of this level may be:

a. E-commerce

b. Virtual worlds

c. Direct Distribution

d. Content sponsorship

e. Portals

f. Social networking

g. Online brokers

h. Online agents

i. Selling agents

j. Manufacturer’s agents

k. Purchasing agents (shopping agents/reverse auctions/buyer cooperatives)

4. Pure Play – businesses that began on the Internet, even if they add

5. A brick-and-mortar presence. Many experts believe that eBay is the only viable pure play model in existence.

Internetnews.com reports that companies are finally recognizing the importance of multiple communication vehicles (chat, blog, text, etc). Discuss how these alternative forms of communication are affecting the ability to provide customer service. http://www.internetnews.com/xSP/article.php/3066461/RightNow+Reveals+Top+Customer+Service+Trends.htm

V. Performance Metrics

Performance metrics are specific measures designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization’s operations. Because strategy is the means to the end, performance metrics should be defined along with the strategy formulation so the entire organization will know what results constitute successful performance.

A. To measure strategy effectiveness, metrics must include:

a. Translation of a vision strategy with measurable outcomes.

b. Must be easy to understand and use.

c. Must be actionable.

d. If tied to employee evaluations, must provide motivation to lead to desired outcomes.

B. Web Analytics – a study of user behavior on Web pages

a. IP addresses are recorded

b. Cookie files are written

c. Page tags are inserted

C. Social Engagement Metrics - Marketers measuring exactly how visitors participate on the site rather than simply measuring whether or not they landed on the page. Items to be measured are:

a. Time spent viewing a video, playing a game, or listening to music Downloading a white paper, MP3 music file, ring tone, or other content.

b. Bookmarking a website at a social bookmarking site such as Del.ic.ious.com.

c. Uploading a user created video, photo, or other multimedia content to a website.

d. Writing a comment on a blog or other Web page.

e. Rating a book or online retailer by leaving a review or other type of rating measure.

f. Subscribing to a blog or website using an RSS feed.

VI. The Balanced Scorecard

A. Balanced Scorecard

1. Previously many organizations simply focused on financial performance or market share as the most important success measures.

2. The Balanced Scorecard was developed in 1990 by two Harvard Business School professors.

3. The Balanced Scorecard looks more toward long-term sustainability rather than short-term results.

B. Four Perspectives – the Balanced Scorecard links strategy to measurement by asking firms to consider performance metrics in the following four areas:

1. Customer Perspective –

measures of the value delivered to customers

a. time

b. quality

c. performance and service

d. cost

2. Internal Perspective

a. meeting customer expectations

b. cycle times, manufacturing quality, etc

3. Innovative and Learning Perspective –

aka the Growth Perspective

a. value is placed on continuous improvement

b. value is also placed on innovation in new products

4. Financial Perspective

a. income and expense

b. return on investment

c. sales

d. market share growth

Review with the students the Balanced Scorecard developed by Raytheon’s E-Business and discuss how this might differ from a Balanced Scorecard for a brick-and-mortar company.

C. Applying the Balanced Scorecard to E-Business and E-Marketing – firms are experiencing information overload. A firm can use it’s website to record virtually anything and everything a customer does on their website. The true test is knowing what information is relevant and how to use this information

1. Metrics for the Customer Perspective

a. loyalty

b. lifetime value

c. product value

d. appropriateness of selected targets

e. customer buying patterns

2. Metrics for the Internal Perspective

a. the entire supply chain

b. human resources

c. information technology

3. Metrics for Learning and Growth Perspective

a. usually falls under the human resources umbrella except for:

b. product innovation

c. continuous improvement of marketing processes

4. Metrics for the Financial Perspective

a. profits

b. return on investment

What is a Balanced Scorecard? A new approach to strategic management was developed in the early 1990's by Drs. Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton. They named this system the 'balanced scorecard'. Recognizing some of the weaknesses and vagueness of previous management approaches, the balanced scorecard approach provides a clear prescription as to what companies should measure in order to 'balance' the financial perspective. This philosophy has it’s own webpage -- http://www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/bsc1.html

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